LuminaCare Solutions provides cloud-based software
Tools to personalize treatments for patients to give the right drug,
at the right dose and right time.
Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem . New forms of antibiotic resistance can cross international boundaries and spread between continents with ease . Many forms of resistance spread with remarkable speed . World health leaders have described antibiotic-resistant microorganisms as “nightmare bacteria” that “pose a catastrophic threat” to people in every country in the world .
In September, the CDC released Antibiotic Resistance Threats in the United States, 2013, detailing a yearly minimum estimated number of 2,049,442 illnesses leading to 23,000 subsequent deaths. The CDC aggressively urges the following four core actions: preventing infections and the spread of resistance, tracking resistant bacteria, improving the use of today’s antibiotics and promoting the development of new antibiotics and diagnostic tests. The FDA responded with updated guidance for antibacterial clinical trials which highlighted the use of adaptive clinical trials to support the development of new antibiotics. The GAIN Act further incentivizes antibacterial drug development by prioritizing review and enabling fast-track approval by the FDA.
Untreatable and hard-to-treat infections from carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) bacteria are on the rise among patients in medical facilities. CRE have become resistant to all or nearly all the antibiotics we have today. Almost half of hospital patients who get bloodstream infections from CRE bacteria die from the infection.
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) causes life-threatening diarrhea. These infections mostly occur in people who have had both recent medical care and antibiotics. Often, C. difficile infections occur in hospitalized or recently hospitalized patients.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes a range of illnesses, from skin and wound infections to pneumonia and bloodstream infections that can cause sepsis and death. Staph bacteria, including MRSA, are one of the most common causes of healthcare-associated infections.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections including pneumonia, bloodstream infections, urinary tract infections, and surgical site infections.
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae, or pneumococcus) is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia and meningitis in the United States. It also is a major cause of bloodstream infections and ear and sinus infections.
MDR Bacterial Infections Cost the Healthcare System
Patients with multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections have higher mortality rates as compared to patients with susceptible infections. The mortality rates due to infection by MDR bacteria are approximately twice that of patients infected by susceptible bacteria. The average length of hospital stay is longer by 6.4 to 12.7 days for patients with MDR bacterial infection. The in
crease in costs for treating patients with MDR bacterial infections range from $18,000 to $80,000 compared to treating patients with susceptible bacterial infections due to longer hospital stays. Appropriate treatment within 24 hours of diagnosis can reduce both mortality rates and hospital stay. 35% of patients infected by MDR bacteria in the hospital are readmitted within one year with a median time of 27 days.
CMS Driving Change
Centers of Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) is now penalizing hospitals for some hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) and readmissions for pneumonia and COPD. In 2012, CMS penalties for 2000 hospitals equaled $280 million for readmission rates > 15%. Approximately 60% HAI patients are insured through CMS.
Lost Hospital Income from Resistant Bacterial Infections
Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI) account for $56B of lost income annually for hospitals.
- Unreimbursed cost – $10B
- Opportunity cost – $46B
Approximately 70% of HAIs are caused by drug-resistant bacteria, leading to longer lengths of hospital stay for treatment.